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Ethics authors M-Z


Macpherson, M. (1995). The Value of Considering Values in Understanding the Social Organization of Schools. Organizational Theory Dialogue. Indiana University.



Miller, G. (2004, October). Choosing Our Legacy Overcoming value conflicts that frustrate society’s efforts to deal with environmental challenges. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Southern Palms Resort, Christ Church, Barbados.

School leaders in the Nordic countries are being caught in a new triangled cross pressure between the demands of local authorities, that often are more interested in financial aspects of school life than of education itself. On the other side they are obliged to strive for the objectives of the school as laid down in Acts. In the Nordic countries the obligation to educate students to become action competent citizens in a democratic society is stresses very much. Thirdly school leaders find that school culture may often be resistant to educational leadership. These conditions give school leaders a number of ethical difficulties like what and whom they should be loyal to: To economics or to school objectives, to authorities or to teachers, to teachers or to students? On the basis of a vision of a Nordic, democratic and reflecting school leader and on a series of Life History interviews with a number of Danish principals I discuss the ways principals try to cope with some of the dilemmas.

Educational leaders,
International studies,
Nordic cultures,
School cultures,

Mitra, D. (2003, October). The moral dilemma of working with youth: providing assistance and getting out of the way. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.

As first year teachers, three young adults forge a friendship that flourishes for twenty years. Two of the teachers, Anne and Chloe, became principals. The third, Joe, continues as a teacher. While Anne and Chloe thrive in administration, Joe’s teaching skills deteriorate. A midlife crisis finds Joe engaged in an extra-marital affair with a colleague. As Joe’s principal, Anne requests that Chloe consider allowing Joe to transfer to her school. This request is made in an effort to guide Joe and support Ann’s school environment. Chloe is faced with a difficult decision that ethically challenges her both personally and professionally.

Personal issues;
Professional issues;
Teacher-administrator relationship;

Moos, L. (2000, September). New ethical dilemmas in nordic school leadership – and in other cultures? Paper presented at the 5th Annual Values and Educational Leadership Conference, Bridgetown, Barbados.

Schooling is always a moral practice conducted according to ethical codes. It takes place in a specific context where regulation steers conduct in certain directions, justified by reference to particular constitutive values. Thus, teaching and fostering are terms infused with moral significance. Consequently, teachers work in a practice which requires a particular conduct. In a context where the curriculum provides an ethical framework and schooling operates within a moral framework, there is a perpetual struggle to align personal practices, school practices and the constitutive values of the national curriculum. This paper focuses on that struggle. It builds on a field study which investigates the relationship between school practices, the encounter between the teacher and the child, and the national constitutive values. Moreover, it draws attention to deliberation in the educational realm. Some critical classroom episodes linked to constitutive values are presented together with the teachers’ reflections concerning these episodes. Overall, the paper reveals the relation between the constitutive values and the moral dilemmas teachers have to engage with in their daily practice.

Ethical codes;
Ethical framework;

Norberg, K. (2002, October). “I always have to balance”: constitutive values in daily practice, a Swedish school study. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto.

Historically, schools have been considered places where values are honored and taught. If those who work in them are expected to understand and embody those values, it would seem appropriate that programs seeking to prepare and train educators should be promoting ethical commitments in prospective school administrators. The purpose of this paper is to examine these issues in the literature to determine: (1) what values have been honored, (2) the university’s role in promoting these values, and (3) how beliefs and perspectives on these issues have mold training programs to enable school administrators to practice and model morality for students as they wrestle with moral competence and
direction for embracing educational and social change.

Higher education;
School administrators;
Social change;

Normore, A. H. (2004). Ethics and values in leadership preparation programs: Finding the North Star in the dust storm. Journal of Values and Ethics in Educational Administration. 2(2). 1-7. Available online at http://www.ed.psu.edu/UCEACSLE/VEEA/



Normore, A.H. (2003, October). Ethics, values and educational leadership programs: finding the north star in the dust storm. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.

Discussions about leadership often try to address, with limited success, the definition of “Leadership”. In many ways a truly effective way of defining leadership has been elusive through a variety of discussions about leadership. This paper looks at the various problems based on the philosophical underpinnings of defining reality through Subject/Object Metaphysics (our current mode in defining reality) and explores the a new reality proposed by Robert M. Pirsig and the Metaphysics of Quality. From a new way of defining reality come a new way to define the reality of Leadership in ways not explored before in the Metaphysics of Leadership. Metaphysics of Leadership offers a new platform from which the reality of leadership can be discussed and explored.

Metaphysics of leadership

Normore, A. H., Brown, L., Sernak, K., Gross, S., McMahon, B., MacDonald, T., Blanco, R. (2005). Cultivating ethical leadership for promoting authentic learning for all. Symposium presented at the 10th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Penn State University, State College, Pennsylvania, October, 2005.



Olssen, M. (2000). Ethical Liberalism, Education and the New Right. Journal of Education Policy. 15(5): 481-508.



Palm-Lei, M. (2003, October). The metaphysics of leadership. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.

The purpose of this dilemma is to address the mounting concerns from residents in New Jersey over funding for general and special education. Some parents believe that special education is undermining regular education. Additionally, there seems to be a lack of support from a funding standpoint from both the state and the federal government to help augment the mounting costs for special education. This has caused an all time high increase in property taxes in New Jersey. Furthermore, the findings demonstrate why district superintendents need to make some crucial decisions that may go against their own ethics and beliefs regarding education.

Federal government;
New Jersey;
Special education;
State government;

Parkes, S.E. & Thomas, A.R. (2003, October). Values in action: observations of effective principals at work. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.

This paper is concerned with the paradox between the different roles school counselors perform and the codes of ethics. While school counselors are responsible for advising on academics, life’s challenges and experiences are not linear. The school counselor changes roles to advise students on short-term social and emotional issues that arise. The first section discusses this paradox and ethical concepts. The second section discusses an ethical dilemma from the perspective of a school counselor. The concluding section includes how the dilemma fits into the turbulence theory and questions focusing on four ethical paradigms and how they relate to school counselors.

Codes of ethics;
Ethical dilemma;
Ethic of care;
Ethic of critic;
Ethic of justice;
Ethic of the profesion;
School counselors;
Turbulence theory

Patterson, J. & Patterson, J. (2000). “Ethics and Decision-Making in Schools,” The Internet Source for Schools. Volume 3(2). Available online at: http://www.emtech.net/source/vol3no2/



Polizzi, J. (2003, October). Ethics in educational administration: a clear path to leadership. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.

Educational leaders must be constantly vigilant about their actions as they speak volumes about the values that the leader supports. It is impossible for an educational leader to take an action that does not signify some comment about how things should be done—which by definition is moral action—and everyone is watching, especially the students. Success of an institution is not only determined by the level of operational
efficiency and productivity, but also on its leader’s moral standards and values system for it impacts various other institutions now and in the future.

The purpose of this paper is to look at leadership relationships--interrelationships and interdependence---and how administrative “moral leadership” rests with the institution’s leadership. The paper has a multi-purpose: First it examines the concept of systems thinking to determine how relationships, support structures, and decisions made by school leaders impact the entire school. Secondly, it explores and furthers our understanding of moral leadership models by synthesizing concepts in the literature and offers a new paradigm of moral leadership for educational leaders in the 21st century.

Educational leaders;
Moral leadership;

Renehan, C. (2004, October). Analytical Ethical Dilemma: Competence or Ineptitude in the Age of Accountability. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Southern Palms Resort, Christ Church, Barbados.



Richtig, R. (2004, October). Case study methodology in teaching ethics in educational administration doctoral programs. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Southern Palms Resort, Christ Church, Barbados.

The purpose of this paper is to call fellow educational professionals to consider giving the concept of hope a more explicit and prominent place in their leadership. Our presentation will briefly survey conceptions of hope and a call for educational professionals to consider its importance in leading learning communities. We believe that the moral agency of educational leaders requires the dynamic of hopefulness to produce the synergy, symbiosis, and syncronicity required for authentic, transcendent. and life-bettering educational experiences.

Educational professionals;
Learning communities;
Moral agency,

Roche, K. (1999). Moral and ethical dilemmas in Catholic school settings. In Begley, P.T. (Ed.) Values and educational leadership. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.



Roset, S. & Walker, K. (2000, September). A call to hope for educational professionals. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Values and Educational Leadership Conference, Bridgetown, Barbados.

In this paper, we plan to take a hard look at educational leadership in a time of turbulence focusing on ethical decision making. The paper rests on turbulence theory (Gross, 1998) and uses the diverse ethical perspectives or paradigms of the ethics of justice, critique, care and the profession (Shapiro and Stefkovich, 2001) to help educational leaders solve dilemmas. It focuses on the final assignment in an ethics course, the development of a moral dilemma, that has been required of doctoral student since 1990 in the Educational Administration Program at Temple University’s College of Education. The purposes of this symposium are the following: 1) to present and discuss some of the ethical dilemmas developed during a time of turbulence by the current doctoral students enrolled in Ethics in Educational Administration; 2.) to analyze the dilemmas in light of the theory of turbulence and four perspectives or paradigms for the carrying out of effective and appropriate ethical decision making; and 3.) to discuss what these ethical dilemmas tell us about education and its relationships to the local community, to U.S. society, and to the global world.

Educational leadership;
Ethical dilemmas,
Ethic of care;
Ethic of critic;
Ethic of justice;
Ethic of the profession;
Temple University;

Schmidt, M. (2000, September). Role theory, emotions & identity in the department headship of secondary schooling. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Values and Educational Leadership Conference, Bridgetown, Barbados.

At the present time, there is a paradox that educational leaders are confronting. On the one hand, it is expected that they will make efficient and rational ethical decisions, while on the other hand, 9/11 has added an emotional dimension to the process. This symposium deals with educational leaders making ethical decisions during unstable times. The framework for the papers, in the symposium, rests on the concepts of Turbulence Theory (Gross, 1998) and the ethical paradigms of justice, critique, care and the profession (Shapiro and Stefkovich, 2001). The presenters utilize this framework to solve authentic ethical dilemmas.

Ethical decision making;
Ethical dilemmas;
September 11

Shapiro, J.P. & Gross, S.J. (2002, October). Ethical leadership in a time of turbulence: Preparing for challenges by utilizing authentic ethical dilemmas. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto.



Shapiro, J.P. & Gross, S.J. (2003, October). The paradox of efficiency and turbulence: solving ethical dilemmas. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.

In this paper, the focus is on increasing family and community involvement in schools. This kind of involvement is essential because it offers care to young people. It means that adults are interested in the next generation and are supportive of it. One caring adult can make a difference in a young person’s life. This is why it is so essential that partnerships are created among schools, families and communities. In this way, there will be a neighborhood that can offer the care and concern needed by students in the poorest areas of the inner city to enable them to succeed.

Community involvement;
Family involvement;

Shapiro, J.P. & Gross, S.J. (2004, October). Moral Development of Educational Leaders: Using Turbulence Theory and Multiple Ethical Paradigms to Make Decisions. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Southern Palms Resort, Christ Church, Barbados.

This dilemma occurred on 9/11 and describes the problems faced by a preschool director and her school community during the World Trade Center attacks. Different ethical questions come to light in regards to this day. For example, does leadership mean that you must remain a leader even in the face of death? Are the needs of the school community more important than the needs of the teachers and their families? The issue of levels of turbulence for different groups inside of the same school, a crucial concept for practitioners to understand, also comes to light on that fateful day.

Family involvement;
School community;
September 11;
Turbulence theory

Shapiro, J.P., Ginsberg, A.E., & Brown, S.P. (2002, October). Family and community participation in urban schools: the ethic of care. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto.

In this paper, I will examine proposed leadership paradigms in the context of anti-racist educational school reform focusing primarily upon issues of power, presenting emancipatory leadership as a most viable vehicle towards effecting such change. With an agenda of anti-racist educational reform in place, how effectively would proposed paradigms of transformational leadership and more specifically, emancipatory leadership proceed in such context? What advantages and benefits are to be gained? What disadvantages or problems remain? Which issues and concerns are attended to and which remain unaddressed? From a pragmatic perspective, is there an alternative to effectively enacting an anti-racist reform agenda? If so, what? If not, how do we best proceed given the available leadership programs and political options? Hence, I would hope to engage in a concisely focused critical discourse, to explore various aspects and avenues of, primarily, the emancipatory leadership paradigm within the context of an anti-racist school reform program, reflecting upon questions and concerns of power.

Emancipatory leadership;

Shuman, A. (2004, October). Home school or home team: analytical ethical dilemmas. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Southern Palms Resort, Christ Church, Barbados.

Collaboration as a cornerstone of effective school inclusion is an idea that has high theoretical currency among many scholars in the areas of special education and educational leadership. The challenge for educational practitioners is to find ways to collaboratively implement high-quality special education programs amid the public call for school efficiency and accountability. Accordingly, the primary purpose of the qualitative research project reported in this paper was to examine inherent challenges in the implementation of school inclusion programs in 10 public schools in North Louisiana over a three-year period. Data collection methods included participatory observation, semi-structured interviews with nine teachers and three principals in four schools, two focus groups and a document search. Participants and researchers were involved in analyzing the data through several processes: i. an interactive analysis in forms of interrelationship digraph; and, ii. a qualitative analysis of interview, observation, and document data. The findings revealed the critical and challenging role of the principal for establishing collaborative cultures for successful school inclusion. Principals were faced with the dilemma of balancing and reconciling conflicting goals of school efficiency (e.g., scheduling and discipline) and school inclusion (e.g., stakeholder collaboration and educational equity for all students). Additionally, special education teachers and general education teachers experienced intrapersonal value conflicts (e.g., fairness of academic expectations for students with disabilities) and interpersonal value conflicts (e.g., equity of teacher workload distribution) in the pursuit of educational equity amidst a climate of school accountability.

School efficiency;
Special education;
Qualitative research

Smith, W.F. & Andrews, R.L. (1989). Instructional leadership: How principals make a difference. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Educators have great moral, ethical, and legal obligations to create schools where all students can achieve their full potential and receive an equal opportunity to succeed in society. Central to that goal are principals who act as instructional leaders. Drawing upon literature, research, and case studies of principals in practice, the first four of six chapters present a clear portrait of the instructional leader. Principals with very different communication, management, and personal styles can all be strong instructional leaders. Possessing the key qualities of resource provider, instructional resource, communicator, and visible presence, strong instructional leaders spend a substantially greater percentage of time on educational program improvement. Consistent with current literature on organizational theory and practice, this book emphasizes the importance of the underlying themes and values that hold a system together. Additionally, a clinical supervision model requiring the supervisor to observe the principal in action, to discuss relevant issues and provide feedback, and to develop a plan for the principal's evaluation is provided. Appended is a zero-base job analysis questionnaire, the score sheet and instructions, a discussion of administrative job dimensions, a time analysis sheet, and a time summary sheet. (87 references) (KM)

Administrator Effectiveness;
Administrator Evaluation;
Educational Improvement;
Elementary Secondary Education;
Instructional Leadership;
Leadership Qualities;
Leadership Responsibility;
School Administration;
School Supervision;
Teacher-Administrator Relationship;
Teacher Supervision

Starratt, R. (2004, October). The Ethics of Learning: Learning to be Moral by Engaging the Morality of Learning. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Southern Palms Resort, Christ Church, Barbados.

In this paper I want to attempt to build a conceptual bridge between two or three competing schools of thought in the field of ethics and education. I believe that those of us involved in the scholarly study of Ethical Educational Leadership have a responsibility to move beyond our relatively small circle, to move beyond preaching to the choir, so to speak, to engage with scholars and educators out beyond our immediate horizon who themselves are struggling in their own way to bring ethical concerns to the national concern for the renewal of schools. This paper, therefore, is an attempt to interpret the concerns of some other scholarly educational groups, look for common ground with our own, and present a larger framework where we all might be able to both promote our own ideas and accommodate the ideas of others within a unifying, but not dogmatic, vocabulary. That vocabulary circles around the theme of Responsibility, and its cultivation in educational settings.

Educational leadership;

Starratt, R.J. (1994). Building an ethical school. London: Falmer Press.



Starratt, R.J. (2003, October). Responsibility, authenticity, and presence: foundational virtues for educational leaders. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.

In this paper, we will not only provide data associated with the concept of community, but we will also discuss this concept within the context of ethics in educational administration. According to John Dewey (1908), ethics is the science that deals with conduct in so far as it is considered as right or wrong, good or bad. Ethics is from the Greek word "ethos." Originally it meant customs, usages, especially belonging to one group as distinguished from another. Later ethics came to mean disposition or character -- customs, not just habit, but approved ways of acting. However, this definition raises certain questions. One might ask: Ethics approved by whom? Right or wrong according to whom? These questions take on added meaning when one considers them in relation to the concept of community and its influence on educational leaders' ethical decision making.

Educational administration,
Educational leaders

Starratt, R.J. (2003, October). The dialogue of scholarship. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.

The discipline of special education students is more than a legal question. It is an ethical question as well. Given the protections afforded special education students under the Individual with Disabilities Act (20 U.S.C.A. §§1400-1485), as well as a continuing state of ambiguity regarding discipline procedures and sanctions, educators and administrators must navigate the tensions between the ethics of justice, critique and care (Shapiro & Stefkovich, 2001) while maintaining safe and efficient learning environments for all students. In the process, their decisions reflect a tenuous balance between the rights of special and regular education students to receive an appropriate education.

Ethics of care;
Ethics of critique;
Ethics of justice;
Special education

Stefkovich, J.A. & Shapiro, J. (2000, September). Deconstructing communities: Educational leaders and their ethical decision-making processes. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Values and Educational Leadership Conference, Bridgetown, Barbados.



Sterba, M. (2003, October). Beyond the ethic of justice: balancing the rights of special and regular education students. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.

In this paper I take up a set of issues about the notion that schools can be communities. In the first part I sketch some hypotheses about how making schools more communal might advance goals that I believe most everyone will value. In the second part, I explore four different metaphors for the notion of a school that is a community. I use these to explore what I call the “thick, thin” dilemma. The thickness of a set of values concerns how robust and life encompassing they are. The essence of this dilemma is that when the values that constitute community are too thin, they do little useful work. However, as values get thicker there is also an increased risk that their realization will be accompanied by what I shall call the “bads” of community. Communities may produce a sense of belonging and generate such relational goods as caring or respect, however, they may also produces parochialism, sectarianism, and an erosion of autonomy. A suitable conception of community is required if we are to maximize the educational goods to which community can lead while minimizing the bads of community.


Strike, K.A. & Soltis, J. (1985). The ethics of teaching. New York: Teachers College Press.



Strike, K.A. Haller, E.J. Soltis. J.F. (1988) The Ethics of school administration. New York: Teachers College Press, 1-29.



Strike, K.A., Haller, E.J., & Soltis, J.F. (1998) The ethics of school administration (second edition), Teachers College Press. Columbia University.



Tsemunhu, R. (2004, October). Ethical dilemmas confronting educational leadership in developing countries. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Southern Palms Resort, Christ Church, Barbados.



Walker , K.D. (1994) Notions of "ethical" among senior educational leaders. Alberta Journal of Educational Research. 40(1), 21-34.



Williams, A. (2002, October). Seeing beyond the integrity fallacy: Understanding integrity in the classroom. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto.

The intent of this paper is to examine how personal, professional, and organizational values influence the dialogical interactions between parent advocates and school administrators with regard to special education practices and processes in their local schools. This paper presents the findings of an investigation into how school administrators and parent advocates understand and respond to their perceptions of the roles, values, practices, and organizational goals associated with the ethical dilemmas they encounter in special education situations.

Ethical dilemmas;
Parent advocates;
Personal values;
Professional values;
Organizational values;
School leaders;
Special education;

Zaretsky, L. (2002, October). An inclusive school and a safe school: Can you have both? Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto.

Contemporary emphases on values such as performance, efficiency, and economy rather than more social democratic values like care and equity pose significant challenges for school leaders who strive for democratic forms of interaction in their leadership practices. School leaders often find themselves directly involved in situations in which power imbalances and people and ideas may be incompatible in the parent-school arena. The high stakes secondary school literacy test case situation which follows illuminates the challenges facing school administrators who are charged with carrying out directives about instruction and improvement within a climate of standardization and accountability. In such situations parents begin to voice critical concerns about the equitable nature of a test that their children must pass in order to graduate and often propose alternative solutions. This case is intended to offer practitioners and scholars an opportunity to further explore individual beliefs and values in practice and how they can contribute to or impede more democratic forms of schooling.

Ethic of care;
Social isses;

 Website: “What is Ethics?”



 Website: The Canadian Educational Policy and Administration Network