Blase, J. & Blase, J. (1998). Handbook of instructional leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. 

The Handbook of Instructional Leadership is drawn from a study of more than 800 teachers schools nationwide. In this expanded Second Edition, the authors incorporate recent findings and insights from research, literature, and national reports. Also included in this new edition is an in-depth examination of the elements of instructional leadership related to the development of a professional learning community. This book is written for practicing and prospective instructional leaders whose objective is to develop reflective, collaborative, problem-solving contexts for dialogue about instruction, and what successful leaders do to enhance teaching and learning. These leaders are namely principals, assistant principals, lead teachers, department chairpersons, curriculum directors, and staff developers. This book will illuminate basic elements of effective instructional leadership and describe specifically how it supports both teacher and student learning. 

Control; Community;
Instructional Leadership;
Instructional Supervision;
Staff Development;
Teacher Supervision 
Boss, J. (1995). Teaching Ethics Through Community Service. Journal of Experiential Education. Volume 18(1), 20-24.     Community 
Burford, C. & Duignan, P. (2003, October). Contemporary challenges and implications for leaders in frontline human service organisations. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.  The development of ethical standards by professional associations and colleges of teachers responds in part to a moral imperative that teachers and school leaders be accountable to the wider community and in part to a desire to enhance the overall professionalism of educators’ behaviour. This paper explores the conceptual and practical complexities inherent in defining ethical standards for the teaching profession with a particular focus on their questionable capacity for implementation. It argues further that moral dilemmas facing teachers are potentially resolvable only by communities of educators internalizing and applying principles of ethics, not formalized codes or standards.  Accountability; Community;
Ethical standards;
Moral dilemnnas;
Teaching profession;
Chassels, C. (2002, October). Teacher unionism: ethical considerations. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto. 

This paper presents a case study of the extent to which the range of value influences present in a school community exists within a school improvement context. It was expected that this study would reveal the expectations that members of the school community perceived and felt compelled to respond to in school improvement. Seven research questions provided the framework for the study. Three of the research questions that directed the study were concerned with determining the educational goals and values espoused by the four groups of participants. A second set of three questions were focused upon examining what the members of the four groups perceived to be the educational goals and values of other community members. The final question was centred upon the way that these values influence the school improvement process.

The findings reveal that values have a significant impact in school improvement. The structure of the planning process and the role of the administrator and strategies employed by administrators are significant in resolving potential values. The significance of this research lies in examining the importance of multiple value influences in order to develop an effective plan for a school community. 

Case study;
Community members
Educational goals
School community;
School improvement;
Coombs, C.P. (2000, September). Reflective practice: picturing ourselves. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Values and Educational Leadership Conference, Bridgetown, Barbados.  The purpose of this study was to identify if there were any traits or values which are embedded in nurses during their educational preparation or during their work experience which would account for this perception of being able to lead a group or committee to successful completion of a task. Values that are often associated with the nursing profession (ie. caring, honesty, compassion, trust) are looked at for the influence they may have had on the leadership beliefs of three women who are in perceived leadership roles within a community college system. Are these actual values or are they a goal or belief system that is an illusion? With the rapid technological changes that are happening in health care are these values still valid and capable of development?  Belief systems;
Community college;
Health care;
Leadership beliefs;
Ehrensal, P.A. (2002, October). Are we doing what is best for the children? Towards a radical ethical critique. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto.  “Disciplinarian or Intimidator” describes a confrontation between an assistant principal and an eighth grade student in the school’s hallway. The confrontation escalates into a physical altercation, because of aggressive behavior from both sides. This dilemma will focus on the assistant principal’s professional ethical behavior and his disciplinary tactics when dealing with violent students. Discipline and violence in schools are significant issues that receive widespread public attention. “Disciplinarian or Intimidator” is an example of moderate turbulence in schools today. In this tension-filled situation, there are personal, professional, school-wide, communitywide, and legal consequences for both the assistant principal and the student.  Assistant principal;
Community; Dilemma;
Ethical dilemma;
Ethical behavior;
Turbulence theory 
Figura, M. (2002, October). An administrator’s role: disciplinarian or intimidator? Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto. 

The intent of this paper is twofold: The first and primary objective is to explore theoretically the ethical source for a definitive, absolute distinction in leadership character – primarily those virtues that constitute positive interpersonal relations with others. In other words, virtues that are figured to be essentially relational in nature, rather than those character qualities that are commonly understood as private or intellectual virtues, will be considered. This aim is positioned within a long standing ethic of justice tradition later to be elaborated and tested along the lines of virtue theory, natural law theory, and deontological moral realism. Classical philosophical and theological writings will serve as a starting point for this study (Aristotle, ~334-323 BCE [1989]; Aquinas, ~1272 [1975]) and lead to more contemporary considerations (Kant, 1785 [1998]; Bradley, 1927; Grisez, 1983; Finnis, 1980; MacIntyre, 1981; George, 2001) including those within a community of discourse as it relates to educational ethics in particular (Strike & Soltis, 1985; Strike, Haller, Soltis, 1998; Campbell, 2003).

As a second or tandem aim, realizing that even though the exploration of virtues and moral proclivity can be a worthy academic exercise, fulfilling in itself, for the principal it is a necessity to possess certain interpersonal or relational virtues for the organizational success of any school. Practically speaking, those who do not possess certain qualities of moral virtue will not succeed in leading an educational enterprise. Right decisions are more likely to follow from right character. It is hoped that a careful theoretical argument will assist in clarifying those perfect and best dispositions that must be internalized within a school leader in order for relationships to prosper and grow and as a result provide a foundation on which educational pursuits are realized. 

Community; Ethic of justice;
Interpersonal virtues;
Leadership character;
Foster, W. (1996) Post administration: Rediscovering ethics and community in a postmodern world. Paper delivered at The Toronto Conference on Values and Educational Leadership.  OISE.     Community; 
Friedman, I.A. (2000, September). School Motivating Values. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Values and Educational Leadership Conference, Bridgetown, Barbados.  In this article, I propose the idea of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education (e.g., the ethics of justice, critique, and care). Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, I define ethic of community as the moral responsibility to engage in communal processes as educators pursue the moral purposes of their work and address the ongoing challenges of daily life and work in schools. Thus, an ethic of community centers the communal over the individual as the primary locus of moral agency in schools. In what follows, I first present some background on moral leadership and ethics in education; I then argue that the ethic of community is a needed complement to the other ethical frames typically used in education and show how it is related to achieving the moral purposes of schooling. In other words, I will argue that ethic of community is a vehicle that can synthesize much of the current work on leadership practices related to social justice, democratic community, and other moral purposes of educational leadership.  Community; Democratic community;
Ethic of care;
Ethic of community;
Ethic of critique;
Ethic of justice;
Moral leadership;
Moral purpose;
Social justice 
Furman, G.C. (2003, October). The ethic of community. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.     Community; 
Glickman, C.D., Gordon, S.P., & Ross-Gordon, J.M. (2004). SuperVision and Instructional Leadership: A Developmental Approach. Boston: Pearson.  This classic market leading text in instructional leadership and supervision continues to challenge the conventional purposes, practices, structure, and language of supervision. The text’s emphases on school culture, teachers as adult learners, developmental leadership, democratic education, and collegial supervision have helped redefine the meaning of supervision and instructional leadership for both scholars and practitioners. The Sixth Edition continues the book’s trend-setting tradition by placing instructional leadership and school improvement within a community and societal context; providing new examples of direct assistance, professional development, and action research; and presenting an entire new chapter, “Supervision for What? Democracy and the Good School.”  Action Research;
Adult Development;
Case Studies;
Change; Community;
Developmental Supervision;
Professional Development;
School Effectiveness;
Teacher development;
Grogan, M. (2000, September). Grappling with Zero Tolerance Issues. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Values and Educational Leadership Conference, Bridgetown, Barbados.  In this paper we introduce a community of women educational leaders, their struggles for personal and professional accountability, and their inquiry toward the development of leadership wisdom in a democratic culture. Such leadership wisdom is not the norm in today’s educational organizations. Influenced by the work of researchers, educational leaders, and professors of educational administration, traditional leadership has been based on hierarchical thinking and prescriptive skills that promote the status quo (Davies and Foster, 1994; Maxcy, 1994). This paper tells the story of a group of women educational leaders who are supporting each other as they challenge tradition and explore the application of democratic leadership in educational settings.  Accountability; Community;
Democrative culture,
Educational administration,
Educational leaders,
Hackney, C.E., Reading, D., & Runnestrand, D. (2000, September). Struggling for authentic human synergy and a robust democratic culture: the wellspring community for women in educational leadership. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Values and Educational Leadership Conference, Bridgetown, Barbados.     Community; 
Hamr, L. (2002, October). The role of school mottos in values disclosure, clarification, goalsetting and evaluation. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto.  In this article, I seek to trace the feasibility of creating school communities within societal diversity. I put forth the notion that if community is to be fostered, structures must be in place at the classroom and school levels which are compatible with human psychology and the establishment of community in contemporary, globalized societies. Currently, scholarly thought on the possibilities for community development within schools entails idealistic conceptualizations, which are mutually exclusive of one another. Drawing on research from the field of social psychology, I offer an explanation of why these independent ideations of community are not likely to be realized in public schools. Utilizing the concepts delineated in social identity theory and realistic group conflict theory, I blend conceptualizations of community from the field of education. It is my contention that by administrators and teachers providing opportunities for the maintenance of smaller groups within the larger school body, a sense of belonging, identity and self esteem is fostered among students which encourages student engagement. Only then can students acknowledge
the validity of others’ values and cooperate within difference. Subsequently, by educators cultivating an overarching goal for the school as a whole and providing opportunities for participation, a community can be created within racial, cultural and religious diversity. Finally, I argue that schools reflecting these ideals are a real possibility in the public education system. I sketch the inner workings of real schools that strive for a cohesive and collaborative school environment. These schools also embrace the notion of global community put forth by Furman (1998), which typifies the perspectives that must be fostered for individuals to live in a society of peace and harmony among diversity. Only under these conditions is
fulfillment, or human flourishing promoted for all individuals, which is the ultimate goal of education (Hodgkinson, 1991; Strike, 2002). 
Community development;
Public schools;
Realistic group conflict theory;
School communities;
School psychology;
Social identity theory 
Hands, C. (2002, October). In pursuit of the ideal: creating school communities within societal diversity. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto.     Community; 
Hands, C. (2003, October). From vision to reality: creating school community in a diverse society. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.  Following an earlier study, which investigated university faculty seniors’ views on pressures to improve learning and research, and the impact of these on ideals of collegiality (Harrison & Brodeth, 1999), a further question emerged, in particular, from the responses of women deans and directors, which this subsequent study addresses, through both critical-theoretical investigation and a field study: how do senior women leaders in universities report their successful experiences of directing and managing the changes – both of people, and of systems – in a new nation such as Palestine, as it strives to take its place amongst successful nations in a globalized world?  Change,
Collegiality, Community;
University faculty,
Hands, C. (2004, October). School-Community Connections: The Influence of Partnerships on the Moral Development of Students. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Southern Palms Resort, Christ Church, Barbados.  The purpose of the study is to examine how reducing the impact of teacher councils on school decision-making is related to a democratic form of school governance. What form of leadership principals are expected to hold is also investigated in relation to redefining the function of teacher councils. The significance of the study is to contribute to our understanding on the role of principals and teacher councils in a Sschool/Sitebased Management (SBM) or democratic form of school governance in the Japanese context of education reform. The limitation of the study is that this is a policy analysis, consisting of document analysis. Therefore, this study does not attempt to uncover how the relationship between principals and teachers has been actually changed in the current education reform in Japan. However, this study is in phase 1 concerning the relationship between principals’ leadership and the function of teacher councils. Therefore, it is important to analyze policy documents to set perspectives for further investigation. 


Community; Decision-making;
Political analysis
School governance;
School sitebased management;
Teacher councils; 

Harchar, R. L. and Hyle, A. E. (1996). “Collaborative Power: A Grounded Theory of Administrative Instructional Leadership in the Elementary School.” Journal of Educational Administration 34(3): 15-29.  Describes a study seeking to develop a theory of instructional leadership grounded in interview data from practicing administrators and their teachers. Effective elementary instructional leaders engaged in various strategies designed to balance power inequities in their school community. They exemplified the use of collaborative power based on trust, respect, and collegiality. (23 references)  Administrator Effectiveness;
Community; Elementary Education;
Instructional Leadership;
Participative Decision Making;
Power Structure;
Teacher Administrator Relationship;
Trust (Psychology) 
Hart, A. & Bredeson, P. (1996). The principalship. New York: McGraw-Hill.  In the current climate of accounting scandals among major firms and executives, the importance of ethical leadership in school business has never been greater. While the business side of schools is relatively unknown to many educators — and even less open to outside scrutiny — it can also provide many temptations. School business officials (SBOs) face potential ethical dilemmas within the financial, legal, personnel, and professional areas of school district operations. This book can help SBOs incorporate ethical considerations into the myriad decisions that occur in the everyday operations of a school district. It sets out multiple ethical frameworks that deal with often-competing perspectives on “what should be done” across a range of issues confronting SBOs. And, it includes models based on what is just, caring, and inclusive of all voices, as well as community expectations, and standards set forth by professional associations.  Accounting;
Business officials; Community;
Ethical decision-making;
Ethical dilemmas;
Ethical leadership 
Johansson, O. & Bredeson, P. (1999). Value orchestration by the policy community for the learning community – reality or myth. In Begley, P.T. (Ed.) Values and educational leadership. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.     Community; 
Malen, B. & Ogawa, R. (1990). Chapter 9: Community involvement: Parents, teachers, and administrators working together. In Bacharach, S.B. (Ed.) Education reform: Making sense of it all. Toronto: Allyn & Bacon, 103-20.     Community; 
McMahon, B.J. (2002, October). Beyond a discourse of deficit: the role of educational administrators in conceptions of risk and resiliency. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto.  This paper examines the process by which adults and youth worked together to try to make their high school a more democratic and equitable place for youth. The paper draws upon three-years of qualitative data to examine the role of adults in enabling or constraining opportunities to increase student voice in school decisionmaking. Drawing from a community of practice framework, the paper suggests that interactions between
the adults and youth represented a microcosm of their broader struggle to increase student voice schoolwide. Adults must actively support youth so that they move from the periphery to the core of the group’s interactions, especially through a collective focus on developing skills and building shared norms. Yet adults also needed to work in partnership with youth conscientiously and continuously to develop patterns of interaction that aligned with the group’s values of equitable relations. When adults did not strike a balance between support and letting go, the groups easily fell back into traditional teacher-student roles. 
Adults; Community;
Qualitative research;
Student voice;
Redding, S. (1996) Quantifying the Components of School Community. The School Community Journal 6,2. (taken from the Effective Schools Research Network at    Community; 
Shapiro, J.P. & Gross, S.J. (2003, October). The paradox of efficiency and turbulence: solving ethical dilemmas. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.  In this paper, the focus is on increasing family and community involvement in schools. This kind of involvement is essential because it offers care to young people. It means that adults are interested in the next generation and are supportive of it. One caring adult can make a difference in a young person’s life. This is why it is so essential that partnerships are created among schools, families and communities. In this way, there will be a neighborhood that can offer the care and concern needed by students in the poorest areas of the inner city to enable them to succeed.  Care;
Community involvement;
Family involvement;
Shapiro, J.P. & Gross, S.J. (2004, October). Moral Development of Educational Leaders: Using Turbulence Theory and Multiple Ethical Paradigms to Make Decisions. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Southern Palms Resort, Christ Church, Barbados.  This dilemma occurred on 9/11 and describes the problems faced by a preschool director and her school community during the World Trade Center attacks. Different ethical questions come to light in regards to this day. For example, does leadership mean that you must remain a leader even in the face of death? Are the needs of the school community more important than the needs of the teachers and their families? The issue of levels of turbulence for different groups inside of the same school, a crucial concept for practitioners to understand, also comes to light on that fateful day.  9-11;
Family involvement;
School community;
September 11;
Turbulence theory 
Shapiro, J.P., Ginsberg, A.E., & Brown, S.P. (2002, October). Family and community participation in urban schools: the ethic of care. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto.  In this paper, I will examine proposed leadership paradigms in the context of anti-racist educational school reform focusing primarily upon issues of power, presenting emancipatory leadership as a most viable vehicle towards effecting such change. With an agenda of anti-racist educational reform in place, how effectively would proposed paradigms of transformational leadership and more specifically, emancipatory leadership proceed in such context? What advantages and benefits are to be gained? What disadvantages or problems remain? Which issues and concerns are attended to and which remain unaddressed? From a pragmatic perspective, is there an alternative to effectively enacting an anti-racist reform agenda? If so, what? If not, how do we best proceed given the available leadership programs and political options? Hence, I would hope to engage in a concisely focused critical discourse, to explore various aspects and avenues of, primarily, the emancipatory leadership paradigm within the context of an anti-racist school reform program, reflecting upon questions and concerns of power.  Anti-racism; Community;
Emancipatory leadership;
Starratt, R.J. (2003, October). Responsibility, authenticity, and presence: foundational virtues for educational leaders. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.  In this paper, we will not only provide data associated with the concept of community, but we will also discuss this concept within the context of ethics in educational administration. According to John Dewey (1908), ethics is the science that deals with conduct in so far as it is considered as right or wrong, good or bad. Ethics is from the Greek word “ethos.” Originally it meant customs, usages, especially belonging to one group as distinguished from another. Later ethics came to mean disposition or character — customs, not just habit, but approved ways of acting. However, this definition raises certain questions. One might ask: Ethics approved by whom? Right or wrong according to whom? These questions take on added meaning when one considers them in relation to the concept of community and its influence on educational leaders’ ethical decision making.  Community,
Educational administration,
Educational leaders 
Sterba, M. (2003, October). Beyond the ethic of justice: balancing the rights of special and regular education students. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania.  In this paper I take up a set of issues about the notion that schools can be communities. In the first part I sketch some hypotheses about how making schools more communal might advance goals that I believe most everyone will value. In the second part, I explore four different metaphors for the notion of a school that is a community. I use these to explore what I call the “thick, thin” dilemma. The thickness of a set of values concerns how robust and life encompassing they are. The essence of this dilemma is that when the values that constitute community are too thin, they do little useful work. However, as values get thicker there is also an increased risk that their realization will be accompanied by what I shall call the “bads” of community. Communities may produce a sense of belonging and generate such relational goods as caring or respect, however, they may also produces parochialism, sectarianism, and an erosion of autonomy. A suitable conception of community is required if we are to maximize the educational goods to which community can lead while minimizing the bads of community.  Communities,
Strike, K.A. (2000, September). Community, coherence, and inclusiveness. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Values and Educational Leadership Conference, Bridgetown, Barbados.  Leadership in online courses is not necessarily limited to instructors. In addition to student leaders, a diverse group of participants may also be involved in course leadership functions. Leaders could include technical advisors, guest speakers, visitors, auditors, teaching assistants, and external sources of interaction. Participants would bring their own values to individual or group interaction. How do the values or beliefs of online course participants affect their online leadership interaction? How is this issue discussed in current research literature? What implications would this have for online instruction today and tomorrow?  Community; Leaders;
Online courses;
Svede, V. (2002, October). How values affect online course leadership. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto.  A qualitative study examining fifteen Ontario secondary school principals concluded that work with school councils increased principals’ political activity with parents and community but had no effect on school cultures. Principals’ behaviours were analyzed within a spectrum ranging from hostility, then avoidance to increasingly positive modes of maintenance, support and innovation. Most principals acted largely in a support mode for mutual benefits. Sometimes the modes described council environments as well as principal behaviours. Political activity was highest within the two modes of maintenance and support as principals resolved conflicts, negotiated differences, defined issues, collaborated on council projects and resisted intrusion.  Avoidance;
Community; Hostility;
Political activity;
Negotiated differences;
Qualitative research;
Secondary schools;