Decision Making


Agor, W.H. (Ed.) (1989) Intuition in organizations. Newbury Park: Sage. Reflecting the dramatic rise in interest in management intuition over the past decade, the contributors to this volume describe how some of the best run companies nurture the use and development of intuitive skills, having found that the use of intuition in leadership and management decision-making is often preferable to traditional analytical techniques. They explain what intuition is, how it can be used to increase productivity and how managers can strengthen their personal intuitive skills.


Intuition, Leadership, Management, Organizations

Campbell-Evans, G.H. (1991). The influence of values on principal decision-making. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research. 37(2). 167-178.   Decision-making;
Hands, C. (2004, October). School-Community Connections: The Influence of Partnerships on the Moral Development of Students. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Southern Palms Resort, Christ Church, Barbados. The purpose of the study is to examine how reducing the impact of teacher councils on school decision-making is related to a democratic form of school governance. What form of leadership principals are expected to hold is also investigated in relation to redefining the function of teacher councils. The significance of the study is to contribute to our understanding on the role of principals and teacher councils in a Sschool/Sitebased Management (SBM) or democratic form of school governance in the Japanese context of education reform. The limitation of the study is that this is a policy analysis, consisting of document analysis. Therefore, this study does not attempt to uncover how the relationship between principals and teachers has been actually changed in the current education reform in Japan. However, this study is in phase 1 concerning the relationship between principals’ leadership and the function of teacher councils. Therefore, it is important to analyze policy documents to set perspectives for further investigation. Decision-making;
Political analysis
School governance;
School site based management;
Teacher councils;
Hart, A. & Bredeson, P. (1996). The principalship. New York: McGraw-Hill. In the current climate of accounting scandals among major firms and executives, the importance of ethical leadership in school business has never been greater. While the business side of schools is relatively unknown to many educators — and even less open to outside scrutiny — it can also provide many temptations. School business officials (SBOs) face potential ethical dilemmas within the financial, legal, personnel, and professional areas of school district operations. This book can help SBOs incorporate ethical considerations into the myriad decisions that occur in the everyday operations of a school district. It sets out multiple ethical frameworks that deal with often-competing perspectives on “what should be done” across a range of issues confronting SBOs. And, it includes models based on what is just, caring, and inclusive of all voices, as well as community expectations, and standards set forth by professional associations. Accounting;
Business officials;
Ethical decision-making;
Ethical dilemmas;
Ethical leadership
Langlois, L. (2004). Responding Ethically: Complex Decision-making by School District Superintendents. International Studies Educational Administration Management. ( 32)2.    Decision-making;
Langlois, L. & Starratt, R. (2003, October). Decisional-making among public school superintendents in Québec: monitoring an emerging process of ethical authenticity. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania. This paper will focus on the genesis of patriarchal paradigms and their impact on all facets of educational theory and practice. It analyzes the effect of patriarchal paradigms on decision-making and knowledge construction, and the implication of these effects on school systems, governance and curricula. Finally, it will extrapolate possibilities to assist in changing attitudes, and concomitantly, the ecosystem that schools are part of: to embrace diversity, equity, and inclusiveness in a pluralistic and multicultural society. Decision-making;
Multi-cultural society;
Patriarchal paradigms

McMahon, B.J. (2002, October). Beyond a discourse of deficit: the role of educational administrators in conceptions of risk and resiliency. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, University of Toronto.


This paper examines the process by which adults and youth worked together to try to make their high school a more democratic and equitable place for youth. The paper draws upon three-years of qualitative data to examine the role of adults in enabling or constraining opportunities to increase student voice in school decision-making. Drawing from a community of practice framework, the paper suggests that interactions between
the adults and youth represented a microcosm of their broader struggle to increase student voice school wide. Adults must actively support youth so that they move from the periphery to the core of the group’s interactions, especially through a collective focus on developing skills and building shared norms. Yet adults also needed to work in partnership with youth conscientiously and continuously to develop patterns of interaction that aligned with the group’s values of equitable relations. When adults did not strike a balance between support and letting go, the groups easily fell back into traditional teacher-student roles.
Qualitative research;
Student voice;
Ortiz, F., & Ogawa, R. (2000). Site-based decision-making leadership in American public schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 38(5), 486-500.   Decision-making;
Patterson, J. & Patterson, J. (2000). “Ethics and Decision-Making in Schools,” The Internet Source for Schools. Volume 3(2). Available online at:
/source/vol3no2/ Ethics_and_Decision-Making_in_Schools.html
Schmidt, M. (2000, September). Role theory, emotions & identity in the department headship of secondary schooling. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Values and Educational Leadership Conference, Bridgetown, Barbados. At the present time, there is a paradox that educational leaders are confronting. On the one hand, it is expected that they will make efficient and rational ethical decisions, while on the other hand, 9/11 has added an emotional dimension to the process. This symposium deals with educational leaders making ethical decisions during unstable times. The framework for the papers, in the symposium, rests on the concepts of Turbulence Theory (Gross, 1998) and the ethical paradigms of justice, critique, care and the profession (Shapiro and Stefkovich, 2001). The presenters utilize this framework to solve authentic ethical dilemmas. 9-11,
Ethical decision making;
Ethical dilemmas;
September 11
Starratt, R.J. (2003, October). Responsibility, authenticity, and presence: foundational virtues for educational leaders. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Nittany Lion Inn, University Park, Pennsylvania. In this paper, we will not only provide data associated with the concept of community, but we will also discuss this concept within the context of ethics in educational administration. According to John Dewey (1908), ethics is the science that deals with conduct in so far as it is considered as right or wrong, good or bad. Ethics is from the Greek word “ethos.” Originally it meant customs, usages, especially belonging to one group as distinguished from another. Later ethics came to mean disposition or character — customs, not just habit, but approved ways of acting. However, this definition raises certain questions. One might ask: Ethics approved by whom? Right or wrong according to whom? These questions take on added meaning when one considers them in relation to the concept of community and its influence on educational leaders’ ethical decision making. Community,
Educational administration,
Educational leaders
Stefkovich, J.A. & Shapiro, J. (2000, September). Deconstructing communities: Educational leaders and their ethical decision-making processes. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Values and Educational Leadership Conference, Bridgetown, Barbados.    Decision-making;
Zaretsky, L. (2004, October). From practice to theory: Inclusive models require inclusive theories. Paper presented at the 9th Annual Values and Leadership Conference, Southern Palms Resort, Christ Church, Barbados. This article reports on a qualitative study investigating the interactions between principals and parent advocates relating to special education. Specifically, the article focuses on the variations in perspectives on disability, special education, and inclusion. A particular emphasis was put on exploring perceived power imbalances in decision-making processes and in incompatibility or conflict among values and interests. The article ends with a discussion of the benefits of democratic and collaborative approaches to interactions. Collaboration;
Qualitative study,
Special education;